Background – The background of a painting is the area that appears to be the furthest away from the viewer. This part of the painting is not usually the focus of the painting and is there to add more substance to the work.
Binder – This reflects to the part of paint that holds the pigment together and helps it stick to the support. The binder helps to add consistency and cohesion to paint.
Drier – A drier is added to slow-drying paints, mainly oils, in order to make them dry more quickly. Many artists use these as oils are particularly slow to dry.
Ground – A ground is a thin layer of paint which can be applied to a support to make it more ready to accept paint. Grounds can be any color, although whites and creamy colors tend to be the most popular colors used in this way.
Medium – A medium is whatever substance you add to paint to change its properties. You can add sources to change paint's consistency, working properties, ability to mix with other paintings, drying time and more. This term can also refer to the substances an artist uses for their painting.
Palette – The word 'palette' can mean two things. Firstly, it can mean the wooden or plastic board that an artist uses to keep paint on and mix it while working on a painting. Secondly, it can refer to the range of colors an artist uses for a painting.
Pigment – The pigment is what produces the color of paint. Pigments are usually ground into a fine powder and mixed with a fluid, such as water or oil, to become paint.
Subject matter – The subject matter of a painting is simply whatever it depicts. It is the focus of the work and the part of the painting that usually has the most meaning and significance.
Support – The support is simply whatever the paint is applied to. Supports are usually canvases, though many artists choose to apply their paint to different surfaces, such as wood panels and paper.
Underpainting – Different from a ground, an underpainting is the first layer of an oil painting. It's used as a sort of base for the painting and is usually done in a single, dull color.
Varnish – A varnish is a substance that is applied to a painting as the final layer once it's complete. The role of varnish is to protect it from dirt and dust.